CUPS a) Without using the ruler (or any other straight edge) prepare the page with margin and title boxes then: Make a light freehand sketch of a cup as shown below, then repeat this until four similar cups are made
b) Using short strokes firm in cups.
c) Use the 4B pencil and medium pressure 'hatch' a series of parallel sloping lines as shown.
d) Do the same, though with shorter lines, in the other direction. Next use some vertical lines and lastly some horizontal. This method of shading is called cross-hatching and is useful for quick renditions.
e) Make another row of four cups.
f) This time we will use a 'figure 8' as our shading method. You could use an 'O' or an 'S'. Use your 4B pencil with a 'light weight' or light pressure and draw a series of '8's' as shown. As you near the darker edge of the cup the 8s can 'overlap' and get a little darker. Don't forget the top left 'mouth' of the cup as it too will need to be shaded.
g) Make another row of four cups. Again using your 4B pencil and 'light pressure' make a series of lines using cross hatch or '8's. With the end of your finger rub the pencil lines until they merge together and form a flat even 'smudge'. Try and stay within the edges of the cup. Repeat this and darken as you near the right hand edge of the cup. Again, do not neglect the top lip.
Label the three methods and title the drawing 'shading'.